5G Technology Set. Birth news 5G will she have the spirit of deja vu? After 4 generations, we are now familiar with the lengthy implementation of standards, the debate about the frequency of auctions and the euphoria of commercial launch campaigns. But this new generation seems to cause even more passion and controversy. This is the object of the game, obviously economic, but also political and social, as evidenced by the news of recent months.
The 5G launch race is worthy of space conquest. It has been observed that the United States and South Korea are arguing with a commercial launch announcement. The flow rate is 10–20 times higher: a peak of 20 Gbit / s and a user experience of 100 Mbit / s (this is 60,000 times more than 2G, the first generation for data transfer!). Density of connections to reach a million connected objects per square kilometer. A Latency of the order of a millisecond, 10-15 times lower than that of 4G. Power consumption is divided by 100.
Many questions relate to health risks, especially in some cantons where 5G is a persona non grata. Strong pressure exerted on their allies to impose an embargo, the Chinese manufacturer of infrastructure for 5G networks, for fear of listening. Debate over frequency auction procedures, with the risk of higher license prices (for example, in Germany), reducing the ability to invest in deployment and coverage. But also questions about the actors who can participate in these auctions, in addition to existing mobile operators. This tension around the launch of this new generation shows that far beyond the advent of yet another version of mature technology, we are witnessing the birth of a wave that will deeply destroy all sectors of the world. economy over the next decade.
For the specifications of this fifth generation mobile radio standard, ITU (International Telecommunication Union) has identified performance targets based on approximately 8 indicators or KPIs (key performance indicators). The result is impressive: performance is 10 times higher than the previous generation:
Before getting started, let’s go back to the beginning of this episode. 5G is the last in a long line. Every generation has seen high growth rates and new services that are changing our relationship with mobile telephony. New uses (instant messaging, video, social networks) take precedence over the initial use of telephony. Again, this fifth generation may well change our habits far beyond the boundaries of the smartphone
To achieve these characteristics, the specifications of the entire communication chain were redesigned for both the radio interface and the antennas, as well as for the core network. However, it should be emphasized that performance goals cannot be achieved at the same time. Three options were identified to adapt to the main use cases considered:
Other antenna innovations help improve frequency performance and efficiency. Thus, (multiple inputs, multiple outputs), improving methods already implemented for 4G and WiFi, consists in converting the antenna into a grid of micro-antennas. Transmission and reception at each of these micro-antennas allows you to concentrate the power emitted in one direction, and thus improve transmission characteristics. This is called beamforming.
Technological change. The first two frequency bands are already partially used by previous generations (2G / 3G / 4G), as well as WiFi and other technologies. They represent a good compromise between flow and bandwidth. On the other hand, the high-frequency range is quite innovative, since it is still rarely used. These frequencies carry the qualifier “millimeter”, in relation to their wavelength of the order of a millimeter. Using these high frequencies allows you to get very high data transfer rates, but low wavelengths are more sensitive to interference and can hardly penetrate buildings. Therefore, they will be used to cover areas of small area, but requiring very large flows or gathering a large number of users. We are talking about “small cells.” Antenna densification has already been implemented for some applications, such as stadiums, stations or airports, but should be generalized using millimeter waves.